# Array

## 832. Flipping an Image¶

Given a binary matrix A, we want to flip the image horizontally, then invert it, and return the resulting image.

To flip an image horizontally means that each row of the image is reversed. For example, flipping [1, 1, 0] horizontally results in [0, 1, 1].

To invert an image means that each 0 is replaced by 1, and each 1 is replaced by 0. For example, inverting [0, 1, 1] results in [1, 0, 0].

Example 1:

Input: [[1,1,0],[1,0,1],[0,0,0]]
Output: [[1,0,0],[0,1,0],[1,1,1]]
Explanation: First reverse each row: [[0,1,1],[1,0,1],[0,0,0]].
Then, invert the image: [[1,0,0],[0,1,0],[1,1,1]]

Example 2:

Input: [[1,1,0,0],[1,0,0,1],[0,1,1,1],[1,0,1,0]]
Output: [[1,1,0,0],[0,1,1,0],[0,0,0,1],[1,0,1,0]]
Explanation: First reverse each row: [[0,0,1,1],[1,0,0,1],[1,1,1,0],[0,1,0,1]].
Then invert the image: [[1,1,0,0],[0,1,1,0],[0,0,0,1],[1,0,1,0]]

Notes:

1. 1 <= A.length = A.length <= 20
2. 0 <= A[i][j] <= 1
class Solution {
public int[][] flipAndInvertImage(int[][] A) {
for (int i = 0; i < A.length; i++) {
for (int j = 0, k = A.length - 1; j <= k; j++, k--) {
if (j == k) {
A[i][j] ^= 1;
} else if (A[i][j] == A[i][k]) {
A[i][j] ^= 1;
A[i][k] ^= 1;
}
}
}

return A;
}
}


• 如果输入值相同，那么两个位置都要异或
• 如果输入值不同，那么不做处理

## 561. Array Partition I¶

Given an array of 2n integers, your task is to group these integers into n pairs of integer, say (a1, b1), (a2, b2), ..., (an, bn) which makes sum of min(ai, bi) for all i from 1 to n as large as possible.

Example 1:

Input: [1,4,3,2]
Output: 4
Explanation: n is 2, and the maximum sum of pairs is 4 = min(1, 2) + min(3, 4).

Note:

1. n is a positive integer, which is in the range of [1, 10000].
2. All the integers in the array will be in the range of [-10000, 10000].
/** 方法一：桶排序的思想 */
class Solution {
public int arrayPairSum(int[] nums) {
int[] bucket = new int;

for (int i = 0; i < nums.length; i++) {
bucket[nums[i] + 10000]++;
}

int total = 0;
boolean odd = true;
for (int i = 0; i < bucket.length; i++) {
while (bucket[i] > 0) {
if (odd) {
total += i - 10000;
}
odd = !odd;
bucket[i]--;
}
}

}
}

/** 方法二：先排序在求和 */
class Solution {
public int arrayPairSum(int[] nums) {
Arrays.sort(nums);

int total = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < nums.length; i += 2) {
total += nums[i];
}

}
}


## 766. Toeplitz Matrix¶

A matrix is Toeplitz if every diagonal from top-left to bottom-right has the same element.

Now given an M x N matrix, return True if and only if the matrix is Toeplitz.

Example 1:

Input: matrix = [[1,2,3,4],[5,1,2,3],[9,5,1,2]]
Output: True
Explanation:
1234
5123
9512
In the above grid, the diagonals are "", "[5, 5]", "[1, 1, 1]", "[2, 2, 2]", "[3, 3]", "", and in each diagonal all elements are the same, so the answer is True.

Example 2:

Input: matrix = [[1,2],[2,2]]
Output: False
Explanation:
The diagonal "[1, 2]" has different elements.

Note:

1. matrix will be a 2D array of integers.
2. matrix will have a number of rows and columns in range [1, 20].
3. matrix[i][j] will be integers in range [0, 99].
class Solution {
public boolean isToeplitzMatrix(int[][] matrix) {
for (int i = 0; i < matrix.length - 1; i++)
for (int j = 0; j < matrix.length - 1; j++)
if (matrix[i][j] != matrix[i + 1][j + 1]) return false;
return true;
}
}

1. 矩阵的行列不一定相等
2. 托普利兹矩阵的解法不一定要一次性将一条斜线上的值全部遍历出来，可以分为多次判断

## 566. Reshape the Matrix¶

In MATLAB, there is a very useful function called 'reshape', which can reshape a matrix into a new one with different size but keep its original data.

You're given a matrix represented by a two-dimensional array, and two positive integers r and c representing the row number and column number of the wanted reshaped matrix, respectively.

The reshaped matrix need to be filled with all the elements of the original matrix in the same row-traversing order as they were.

If the 'reshape' operation with given parameters is possible and legal, output the new reshaped matrix; Otherwise, output the original matrix.

Example 1:

Input:
nums =
[[1,2],
[3,4]]
r = 1, c = 4
Output:
[[1,2,3,4]]
Explanation: The row-traversing of nums is [1,2,3,4]. The new reshaped matrix is a 1 * 4 matrix, fill it row by row by using the previous list.

Example 2:

Input:
nums =
[[1,2],
[3,4]]
r = 2, c = 4
Output:
[[1,2],
[3,4]]
Explanation: There is no way to reshape a 2 * 2 matrix to a 2 * 4 matrix. So output the original matrix.

Note:

1. The height and width of the given matrix is in range [1, 100].
2. The given r and c are all positive.
class Solution {
public int[][] matrixReshape(int[][] nums, int r, int c) {
final int R = nums.length;
final int C = nums.length;
if (r * c != R * C) return nums;

int[][] result = new int[r][c];
int position;
int tempi, tempj;
for (int i = 0; i < r; i++)
for (int j = 0; j < c; j++) {
position = i * c + j;
result[i][j] = nums[position / C][position % C];
}
return result;
}
}


## 485. Max Consecutive Ones¶

Given a binary array, find the maximum number of consecutive 1s in this array.

Example 1:

Input: [1,1,0,1,1,1]
Output: 3
Explanation: The first two digits or the last three digits are consecutive 1s.
The maximum number of consecutive 1s is 3.

Note:

1. The input array will only contain 0 and 1.
2. The length of input array is a positive integer and will not exceed 10,000
class Solution {
public int findMaxConsecutiveOnes(int[] nums) {
int cnt = 0;
int maxCnt = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < nums.length; i++) {
if (nums[i] == 1) {
cnt++;
maxCnt = maxCnt < cnt ? cnt : maxCnt;
} else {
cnt = 0;
}
}
return maxCnt;
}
}


## 448. Find All Numbers Disappeared in an Array¶

Given an array of integers where 1 ≤ a[i] ≤ n (n = size of array), some elements appear twice and others appear once.

Find all the elements of [1, n] inclusive that do not appear in this array.

Example:

Input:
[4,3,2,7,8,2,3,1]
Output:
[5,6]

class Solution {
public List<Integer> findDisappearedNumbers(int[] nums) {
int[] buckets = new int[nums.length];
for (int num : nums) {
buckets[num - 1]++;
}

List<Integer> result = new ArrayList<Integer>();
for (int i = 0; i < nums.length; i++)
if (buckets[i] == 0)

return result;
}
}


## 717. 1-bit and 2-bit Characters¶

We have two special characters. The first character can be represented by one bit 0. The second character can be represented by two bits (10 or 11).

Now given a string represented by several bits. Return whether the last character must be a one-bit character or not. The given string will always end with a zero.

Example 1:

Input:
bits = [1, 0, 0]
Output: True
Explanation:
The only way to decode it is two-bit character and one-bit character. So the last character is one-bit character.

Example 2:

Input:
bits = [1, 1, 1, 0]
Output: False
Explanation:
The only way to decode it is two-bit character and two-bit character. So the last character is NOT one-bit character.

Note:

1. 1 <= len(bits) <= 1000.
2. bits[i] is always 0 or 1.
class Solution {
public boolean isOneBitCharacter(int[] bits) {
int i;
for (i = 0; i < bits.length; i++) {
if (bits[i] == 0) {
if (i == bits.length - 1) return true;
continue;
} else {
i++;
}
}
return false;
}
}


## 830. Positions of Large Groups¶

In a string S of lowercase letters, these letters form consecutive groups of the same character.

For example, a string like S = "abbxxxxzyy" has the groups "a", "bb", "xxxx", "z" and "yy".

Call a group large if it has 3 or more characters. We would like the starting and ending positions of every large group.

The final answer should be in lexicographic order.

Example 1:

Input: "abbxxxxzzy"
Output: [[3,6]]
Explanation: "xxxx" is the single large group with starting 3 and ending positions 6.

Example 2:

Input: "abc"
Output: []
Explanation: We have "a","b" and "c" but no large group.

Example 3:

nput: "abcdddeeeeaabbbcd"
utput: [[3,5],[6,9],[12,14]]

Note: : 1 <= S.length <= 1000

class Solution {
public List<List<Integer>> largeGroupPositions(String S) {
List<List<Integer>> result = new ArrayList<List<Integer>>();
int index = 0, first = 0;
char tmp = ' ';
List<Integer> pair;
for (int i = 0; i < S.length(); i++) {
if (S.charAt(i) != tmp) {
if (index >= 3) {
pair = new ArrayList<Integer>(2);
}
tmp = S.charAt(i);
first = i;
index = 1;
} else {
index++;
if (i == S.length() - 1 && index >= 3) {
pair = new ArrayList<Integer>(2);
}
}
}

return result;
}
}


## 349. Intersection of Two Arrays¶

• Array
• Two Pointers
• Set

Given two arrays, write a function to compute their intersection.

Example 1:

Input: nums1 = [1,2,2,1], nums2 = [2,2]
Output: 

Example 2:

Input: nums1 = [4,9,5], nums2 = [9,4,9,8,4]
Output: [9,4]

Note:

• Each element in the result must be unique.
• The result can be in any order.

class Solution {
public int[] intersection(int[] nums1, int[] nums2) {
if (nums1 == null || nums1.length == 0 || nums2 == null || nums2.length == 0) {
return new int;
}

Set<Integer> set = new HashSet<>(nums1.length);
Set<Integer> intersect = new HashSet<>();

for (int i : nums1) {
}
for (int i : nums2) {
if (set.contains(i)) {
}
}

int[] result = new int[intersect.size()];
int i = 0;
for (int item : intersect) {
result[i++] = item;
}

return result;
}
}


class Solution {
public int[] intersection(int[] nums1, int[] nums2) {
if (nums1 == null || nums1.length == 0 || nums2 == null || nums2.length == 0) {
return new int;
}

Arrays.sort(nums1);
Arrays.sort(nums2);

final int n = nums1.length;
final int m = nums2.length;

List<Integer> result = new ArrayList<>();
int i = 0, j = 0;
while (i < n && j < m) {
if (nums1[i] < nums2[j]) {
i++;
} else if (nums1[i] > nums2[j]) {
j++;
} else {
int tmp = nums1[i];
i++;
j++;
while (i < n && nums1[i] == tmp) { i++; }
while (j < m && nums2[j] == tmp) { j++; }
}
}

int[] res = new int[result.size()];
for (i = 0; i < res.length; i++) {
res[i] = result.get(i);
}
return res;
}
}